Sexual Health

The national framework for sexual health improvement focuses on prioritising the prevention of poor sexual health, addressing its wider determinants and meeting the needs of more vulnerable groups.

The Sexual and Reproductive Health Profiles have been developed by Public Health England to support local authorities and public health leads to monitor the sexual and reproductive health of their population and the performance of local public health related systems. The profiles provide a snapshot of sexual and reproductive health across a range of topics including teenage pregnancy, abortions, contraception, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Wider influences on sexual health such as alcohol use, and other topics relating to teenage pregnancy such as education and deprivation level are also included.

In addition, Public Health England's Sexual Health Balanced Scorecard (currently unavailable) provides a snapshot of sexual health at a local level. Interactive maps and charts enable comparisons to be made regionally and nationally across a range of indicators relating to teenage pregnancy, abortions, contraception, sexually transmitted infections and other relevant issues. The aim is to provide a key source of sexual health information for public health, commissioning and performance management colleagues at a local, regional and national level. This particular tool allows users to view and compare key and supporting indicators to provide a wider view of sexual health at a Local Authority level.

Key findings from the national profiles include:

HIV and STI

Sexually transmitted infections are the main preventable cause of infertility. When left untreated, they facilitate HIV transmission by increasing both HIV infectiousness and HIV susceptibility.

Derby performs comparably with the national average across the following HIV and STI indicators:

  • Rate of syphilis diagnoses – 8.7 per 100,000 population
  • Rate of chlamydia diagnoses – 339 per 100,000 population
  • Rate of first episode genital warts diagnoses – 112.9 per 100,000 population
  • Rate of first episode genital herpes diagnoses – 51.5 per 100,000 population
  • HIV testing coverage amongst men – 79.4% amongst eligible new male genitourinary medicine (GUM) attendees
  • Late diagnosis of HIV – 42.6% of all adults aged 15 years or more are newly diagnosed with a HIV infection
  • Rate of new HIV diagnoses – 12.3 per 100,000 population aged 15 or above

Derby performs significantly better than the national average across the following indicators:

  • Rate of gonorrhoea diagnoses – 57.4 per 100,000 population
  • All new sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses (excluding Chlamydia in under 25 year olds) – 713 per 100,000 population aged 15-64
  • STI testing rate (excluding Chlamydia in under 25 year olds) - 16,429 per 100,000 population aged 15-64
  • Overall HIV testing uptake – 86.4% of eligible new GUM episodes in which a HIV test was offered
  • Uptake of HIV testing among MSM – 97% of eligible new GUM episodes in which a HIV test was offered
  • HIV testing uptake amongst women – 82.9%
  • HIV testing uptake amongst men – 90.8%
  • Overall HIV testing coverage – 72.6% 
  • HIV testing coverage amongst women – 67.5%
  • % of girls aged 12-13 who have received all 3 doses of the HPV vaccine – 92.3%


Derby performs significantly worse than the national average across the following HIV and STI indicators:

  • Chlamydia detection rate amongst young people aged 15-24 – 1,653 per 100,000 population aged 15-24
  • Proportion of population aged 15-24 screened for chlamydia – 17.5% 
  • STI testing positivity rate (excluding chlamydia in under 25 year-olds) – 4.3%
  • HIV testing coverage amongst MSM – 77.2%
  • Proportion of TB cases offered an HIV test – 86.1%

HIV and STI Chart

Reproductive Health

Abortions highlight a lack of access to good quality contraception and advice, as well as problems with individual use of contraceptive methods. In Derby, the rate of abortions amongst females aged 15-44 is significantly lower than the national average (14.7 per 1,000 compared with 16.5), but higher than the regional average (13.3). However, Derby performs significantly worse than the national average for the proportion of women under 25 having an abortion after a birth (39.4%), and for the percentage of NHS-funded abortions under 10 weeks gestation (76%).

Derby performs comparably with the national average across the following reproductive health indicators:

  • Repeat abortions in women under 25 years – 25.2%
  • Rate of abortions in women aged 25 and over – 12.7% 
  • Abortions over 10 weeks that are medical – 19.2%
  • Rate of Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) admissions – 215.9 per 100,000 amongst females aged 15-44
  • Rate of ectopic pregnancy admissions – 85.6 per 100,000 amongst females aged 15-44
  • Rate of cervical cancer registrations – 11.5 per 100,000 female population

Reproductive Health Chart

Teenage Pregnancy

Previous research suggests that teenage pregnancy is associated with poorer outcomes for both young parents and their children. Teenage mothers have a higher risk of poor mental health than older mothers, and are more likely to bring up their child in poverty. In addition, babies born to women under 20 are at a 30% greater risk of neonatal mortality and stillbirth, and a 44% higher risk of infant mortality.

Derby performs comparably with the national average across the following indicators:

  • Rate of conceptions amongst females aged 15-17 – 26.1 per 1,000
  • Rate of conceptions amongst females aged 13-15 – 4.6 per 1,000
  • Rate of abortions amongst females aged 15-17 – 8.1 per 1,000

Despite this, the percentage of conceptions to those under 18 that led to an abortion is significantly lower than the national average (31% compared with 51%). This is reflected in the fact that the proportion of births where the mother is under 18 (1.5%) is significantly higher than the national average (0.9%).

Teenage Pregnancy Chart

Wider Determinants of Health

The wider determinants of sexual health include factors such as poverty, crime and alcohol. In Derby, the rate of alcohol-specific hospital admissions amongst young people under 18 (36.9 per 100,000) is comparable with the national average (36.6).

Derby performs significantly worse than the national average across the following:

  • Percentage of people living in the 20% most deprived areas in England – 35.0%  
  • Children under 16 living in poverty - 20.5% 
  • Percentage of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSEs at grades A*-C (including English and Maths) – 47.6%
  • 16-18 year-olds not in employment, education or training – 6.4%
  • Percentage of half days missed by pupils due to overall absence – 4.94%
  • Rate of first-time entrants to the youth justice system – 536 per 100,000

Wider Determinants of Health Chart

Key findings for Derby from a Sexual Health Needs Assessment undertaken in Derbyshire during 2013, include:

  • High rates of diagnosis for all STIs, with a high proportion of reinfection in females.
  • Syphilis in MSM (men who have sex with men) and gonorrhoea appear to be particular issues.
  • Derby City is significantly lower than the England average for the proportion of the target population tested for chlamydia outside of genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, although above the England average for diagnosis rate in all settings (29.5% of the target population tested; 8.1% of tests were positive during 2011/12).
  • The prevalence of HIV is 1.7 per 1,000 people; this is approaching the threshold of 2 per 1,000 people at which routine HIV testing is recommended.

Services

Sexual health is a key part of our identity and is essential to our physical and psychological wellbeing. The fundamental aspects of good sexual health are aided by access to services and information. Adequate and accessible provision contributes to equitable, positive and safe relationships and sexual fulfilment.

The Derby City Integrated Sexual Health Service is based at London Road Community Hospital. Services include: STI testing and treatment; contraception; pregnancy support; health promotion. Specific sexual health services are also provided by primary care and pharmacies, such as, the provision of Long Acting Reversible Contraception and emergency contraception.

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